Underground mining machines
These very special machines operate in drift ways and tunnels. They are designed to load and transport materials over short distances and at low speeds. These machines, with the reduced overall size, are required to operate under difficult conditions. Tyres working in these conditions are subject to numerous damages (abrasion, tearing off of pieces of tread rubber, cuts, impacts, etc.).
There are several types of vehicle, each serving a specific purpose.
These are very low trucks, generally with 2 axles and either a tilting skip or a fixed one equipped with an ejector. They are fitted with single tyres front and rear.
These are very low, articulated machines, with combustion or electric engine, two axles mounted with single tyres, and one or two articulated arms equipped with a bucket. or dangerous applications, these machines are remote-controlled or wire-guided. In this case, the “driver” remains at a safe distance.Loaders known as LHDs (Load Haul Dumps) are used for both loading and transport.
These are very low, articulated machines, with two axles mounted with single tyres. They are used in underground mines for various operations. Examples include drilling machines, truck-mounted platforms for ceiling aintenance, personnel transport machines, etc.
(civil and military intervention machines, truck cranes, etc.)
Truck cranes (TC)
These cranes are mounted on a truck with a reinforced chassis. They are fitted with Truck tyres and intended only for on-road use. Compact and therefore more maneuverable, they excel on solid surfaces. Their maximum lifting capacity is 100 tons.
Rough-terrain cranes (RT)
These cranes are not intended to travel on roads, nor cover long distances. They are equipped with a single cabin, combining both driver and operator stations. They are fitted with Earthmover tyres, allowing them to comfortably overcome the obstacles encountered and giving them considerable rough terrain capabilities. They have 2 or 3 axles which can be drive and/or steering axles, thereby giving them great maneuverability. Their maximum lifting capacity is 200 tons.
City Cranes (RT)
A new generation of RT cranes, with a single cabin but a new design (reduced overall size), is authorized to travel on the road.
They are called “City cranes”.
These cranes are fitted with Truck or Earthmover tyres. They can have up to 4 axles. Their maximum capacity is 50 tons and their maximum speed is 90 km/h.
All-terrain cranes (AT)
These cranes, very often described as road cranes, travel mainly on the road (at up to 80 km/h or 50 mph) but also on sites. They are fitted with Earthmover tyres, combining good travelling speeds and adhesion/traction. They possess separate driver and crane-operator cabins. The number of axles varies (from 2 to 10) according to the models. The tyres are fitted as singles and can carry up to 12 tons per axle.
These cranes have several drive axles and several steering axles, giving them great maneuverability and considerable adaptability in the work.
Their maximum lifting capacity is 1000 tons. All lifting operations are performed with the outriggers in position.
These are small machines without suspension, incorporating a single cabin, and fitted with 4 handling equipment type tyres. They operate on industrial sites (warehouses, workshops, etc.) and only rarely use roads.
These cranes are mounted on a reinforced chassis and used only on docks and intermodal depots. They have several drive axles. All axles are steering. These cranes are fitted with earthmover tyres. All lifting operations are performed with the outriggers in position. They are very heavy and large; they are slow(5 to 6 km/h) and not easy to manoeuvre.
The most important dock crane have 7 dead axles and 5 moving axles. They are fitted with 96 tyres. It’s are a lift capacity of 150 tons and a loading height capacity is 55 meters.
These machines are generally mounted on 3 steerings and/or drive axles. Fitted with All-Terrain Earthmover tyres and capable of reaching high travelling speeds, these machines possess great rough- terrain capabilities and excellent maneuverability.
(road-rollers, finishers, etc.)
There are various types of Public Works/Civil Engineering machines designed exclusively for road construction.
Compactors are mainly used for public works.
Their role is to compact the ground, either to prepare and level it for road construction or to finish the road surfaces. These machines can have different construction types:
two axles equipped with drum rollers;
a front axle equipped with a drum roller, and a rear axle mounted with two treaded tyres;
a front axle equipped with a drum roller, and a rear axle mounted with smooth tyres;
two axles mounted on tyres, with 2,3,4 or 5 smooth tyres.
These machines are mounted on tyres or tracks. Their role is to tear up coatings and concrete in order to prepare the ground for a fresh surface course. They are equipped with a planning unit, adjusted by means of a manual or electric control system, a heating system for softening the coating material, and a conveyor belt for disposing of the coating in a rigid dumper. Sometimes planers are fitted with a sprinkler system to avoid dust and protect the equipment against premature wear.
The tyres on these machines are exposed to very high temperatures.
These earthworks machines are used to prepare the land. They are mounted on 4 tyres, with a steering axle at the front and a drive axle at the rear. They are fitted with a hopper and a tool that incorporates the stabilizers contained in the hopper (lime for example) into the soil.
Certain machines are equipped with 4 identical wheels, and others with smaller front tyres. These machines require considerable traction and flotation.
These machines are mounted on tyres or tracks and, as their name suggests, their role is to supply the finishers with coating materials. Feeders receive the coating material by conveyor belt and feed it to the finishers.
In the road works sector, the finisher, as its name suggests, is used to “finish” the work by laying the surface course on top of the roadbed, prepared during prior earthworks. It is a self-propelled vehicle, with a maximum travelling speed of up to 25 km/h (15.5 mph).
It is made up of:
a hopper, which receives the coating (with a capacity of 3 cu. m to 25 cu.m, or 4 cu. yards to 33 cu. yards); The hopper is carried by tired wheels (2 or 4) that are steering and sometimes drive wheels.
a frame supporting the translational heat engine, a product-transfer system and a control station; The frame is supported by a set of tracks or tyres (1 or 2 axles) operated by chains or hydrostatic transmission.
a screed, vibrating or fixed, designed to spread the product in an even layer (known as the surface course) of up to 8.50 m (9.3 yd) in width. The depth of the layer (30cm/12 in. max.) is regulated by a manual, electric or optical device. The spreading speed can reach 30 m/mn (33 yd/mn). The screed’s smoothing plate is heated either electrically or using fuel oil or gas.